Knowledge of the hottest wood packaging materials

2022-08-21
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Knowledge of wood packaging materials

in order to prevent forest pests from spreading internationally with the wood packaging materials used in goods, Premier Li Keqiang presided over a symposium on resolving excess production capacity and achieving poverty relief development in the iron and steel and coal industry in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and pointed out: ldquo; In March of last year, the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) published the international phytosanitary measures Standard No. 15 "guidelines for the management of wood packaging materials in international trade" (ISPM15), which requires that the wood packaging materials used in goods should be treated for pest control before leaving the country, and be attached with special marks determined by IPPC. At present, many WTO members have formulated and adopted corresponding measures based on this standard, but the specific quarantine standards and implementation period vary from country to country, and some countries will begin to implement them after a certain transition period; While adopting international standards, some countries also accept wood packaging that meets domestic import requirements; In addition, many countries have not announced the adoption of the standard

many developed countries have adopted ISPM15 Standard

the United States published a final regulation on September 16, 2004, announcing the revision of the import regulations of wood packaging materials, requiring all imported wood packaging materials to be treated and marked in accordance with ISPM15 international standard. The measure came into full force on September 16th, 2005. Wooden packages that do not meet ISPM15 will be returned immediately. A one-year transition period will be provided from September 16, 2004. During this period, the official Plant Protection Agency of the exporting country and the U.S. importer will be informed that the wooden packaging has not been properly treated and marked, but no other measures will be taken until the new regulations come into force

Canada announced in 2004 that ISPM15 will be fully implemented from April 1, 2005, requiring all imported wood packaging (except the United States) to meet the requirements of ISPM15 or be processed and certified according to the methods approved by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CIFA). After this measure comes into effect, wooden packaging materials that do not meet the import requirements will be returned. The transition period is from June 1st, 2004 to April 1st, 2005. Countries that export wooden packaging to them are allowed to use identification marks or certificates instead of marks during this period

the European Union announced the initial implementation of ISPM15 from July 1st, 2004. The EU also requires that imported wooden packaging materials need to be peeled, but has given a certain transition period, which will be implemented from March 1, 2006. ISPM15 allows the peeling of imported wood packaging materials, but the corresponding scientific basis must be provided. In addition, the EU also requires that the cargo padding should be made of peelless wood without pests and signs of pests, which will be implemented from December 31, 2007

Switzerland announced the revision of the regulations on the management of wood and wood products on February 5, 2004. The revised measures basically comply with ISPM15. In addition, the following timber import regulations have been revised: timber from countries where pine wood nematodes are known to occur; Timber from Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkey and other countries (except EU Member States); Pine bark; Regulations on defense against parasitic hidden clumps and red shells, etc. The revised measures have taken initial effect since July 1st, 2004, and the full effective date is tentatively scheduled for March 1st, 2005

New Zealand announced the import hygiene standard for wooden packaging materials in 2003, which adopted the same measures as ISPM15 and came into full force on April 16, 2003. In addition to adopting ISPM15, New Zealand also implements its own quarantine requirements

the quarantine and Inspection Bureau of the Australian Department of agriculture and forestry issued a revision of the sanitary requirements for imported wooden packaging materials in 2004. The revised quarantine requirements are basically in line with ISPM15 and came into force on September 1st, 2004. After the effective date, Australia will take measures such as disinfestation, destruction and return of non-conforming wooden packaging. However, in addition to ISPM15, Australia will also maintain the following original universal laboratory machine report printing: request, and continue to be effective after September 1, 2004: no skin; Each cubic meter shall be fumigated with 48 grams of methyl bromide for 24 hours, and the minimum planed diameter of the treated wood shall not exceed 200mm

South Korea issued the draft quarantine requirements for wood packaging materials on July 10, 2003, requiring that wood packaging imported from all countries must be treated and certified in accordance with ISPM15 or the method approved by the National Plant Quarantine Bureau of South Korea, and will be fully implemented from June 1, 2005. After this date, containers will be randomly selected to check whether the wooden packages comply with ISPM15, and the wooden packages that do not comply with ISPM15 will be directly quarantined

adoption of ISPM15 by developing countries

Mexico published an official draft standard in 2004, announcing the adoption of ISPM15, which took effect on September 16, 2005. As Mexico is a member of NAFTA, its requirements are basically the same as those of the United States. In addition, Mexico has also formulated requirements for the use of wooden packaging materials for export goods and formulated Inspection Guidelines to facilitate the inspection of wooden packaging at the port of entry. In addition, it is noteworthy that Mexico only accepts heat treatment of imported wooden packaging materials, and does not accept fumigation treatment

Turkey announced that it plans to implement ISPM15 from January 1st, 2006. It also stipulates that natural or legal persons who produce, sell and sanitize wood packaging materials used in international trade must register with the Ministry of agriculture and rural affairs to obtain permission to use internationally recognized marks or seals. All wood packaging materials must be bark free

Peru has also adopted basically the same provisions as ISPM15. However, the specific implementation date is different. The wooden packaging provisions for export goods came into effect on March 1, 2005, while the wooden packaging for import and international transshipment goods came into effect on September 1, 2005

India, the Philippines and other countries have also implemented ISPM15

WTO members' attention to the problems arising from the adoption of ISPM15

developing countries need more time, Make its treatment method consistent with ISPM15

according to Article 2 of Annex B of SPS agreement, "except for emergencies, members shall set aside a time interval between the publication and entry into force of sanitary and phytosanitary regulations, so that producers of exporting Members, especially developing country members, have time to adapt their products and production methods to the requirements of importing Members". Because developing countries do face many difficulties if they want to fully meet the requirements of ISPM15

the treatment effect of heat treatment and methyl bromide fumigation equipment in many developing countries cannot meet the requirements of ISPM15. On the other hand, the scale of heat treatment and fumigation enterprises is small, and they cannot handle large quantities of exported wooden packaging. Therefore, developing countries need some time to establish processing equipment and enterprises that can meet ISPM15 standards

secondly, exporting countries need time to establish a certification system for wood packaging processing enterprises to ensure that the processing methods of enterprises do meet the quarantine requirements of ISPM15 or those formulated by importing countries based on ISPM15. For developing countries, it will take longer. Thirdly, the processing enterprises certified by the national plant protection agency still need some time to establish a supervision and audit system. Based on the above three reasons, it is very important to give developing countries more adaptation period, otherwise it will seriously affect the export volume of developing countries using wood packaging goods

developing exporting countries want importing countries to recognize the effectiveness of other optional treatment measures

according to ISPM15 article 3.3 "The National Plant Protection Agency may accept any measures other than those listed in Annex I through arrangements with other trading partners, especially when the measures listed in Annex I cannot be adopted or verified. Such measures should be technically justified and should comply with the principles of transparency, non discrimination and equality". When some exporting countries cannot carry out the heat treatment and methyl bromide fumigation specified in Annex I of ISPM15 due to the lack of corresponding treatment facilities, they should be allowed to adopt other alternative methods, such as fumigation with phosphine and sulfuryl fluoride, or treatment with chemical pressure infiltration and irradiation. According to the provisions on equivalence in Article 4 of SPS agreement, as long as the exporting Member objectively proves to the importing Member that its sanitary and phytosanitary measures have reached the appropriate sanitary and phytosanitary protection level of the importing Member, each member shall accept the measures of other members as equivalent measures, even if these measures are different from the measures of the importing Member itself or from the measures used by other members engaged in the trade of the same products

quarantine barriers caused by different quarantine standards

wood packaging materials used in international trade will be reused, reproduced or recycled, and it will be difficult to determine their country of origin. Therefore, although different quarantine requirements are formulated for different countries of origin, it will be difficult to implement in the end, so it will be in vain. At present, some countries have raised objections to this. However, it can be seen from the quarantine treatment methods adopted by the above countries that some countries will still take different measures, such as strict quarantine treatment for wood packaging from countries with pine wood nematodes, and relatively loose treatment for wood packaging from other countries

the peeling requirements of some countries on wood packaging materials have seriously affected international trade

ISPM15 allows importing countries to implement the peeling requirements, but it must have a scientific basis. The European Union has put forward a peeling requirement, which many members strongly oppose: this requirement seriously hinders trade, and the adoption of unreasonable peeling requirements different from ISPM15 is not conducive to promoting international coordination. At present, the international forestry quarantine research group is reviewing this requirement. Therefore, the United States, New Zealand, Canada and other countries require the EU to provide corresponding scientific basis or risk analysis materials, and reconsider the peeling requirements after the research team completes the review

Some indicators of

ispm15 need to be modified

ispm15 is based on the technical indicators applied in northern Europe, so the fumigation temperature is not applicable to the world. Therefore, China and South Korea have carried out a cooperative study on the killing effect of ISPM15 methyl bromide fumigation index on pine wood nematodes, and it is considered that ISPM15 index can not effectively kill pine wood nematodes. The two countries have submitted a proposal to IPPC to revise the technical index, requiring that the fumigation time of wood packaging from countries with pine wood nematodes be extended from 16 hours to 24 hours, and the 24-hour concentration should reach 24g/l, 28g/l and 32g/l respectively (48g/l when it is greater than or equal to 21 ° C, 56g/l when it is greater than or equal to 16 ° C, and 64g/l when it is greater than or equal to 11 ° C). The above concentration is in is question 1: The main motor source of the ring stiffness tester does not light up, and the concentration of PM15 is reached after 2 hours of fumigation

source: WTO economic guide, Ministry of Commerce

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